Odi Massacre & Origins of Militancy in Ijawland
Kaiama – December 1998
Kaiama is a small town in Western Ijaw, about half an hour’s drive from Yenagoa, the capital of Bayelsa State. Historically Kaiama is famous for being the birth place of Major Isaac Adaka Boro, an Ijaw nationalist who in 1966 proclaimed “the Niger Delta Peoples Republic.” In December 1998 5,000 Ijaw men and women representing over 40 Ijaw clans, chose the historic town of Kaiama to articulate their aspirations for the Ijaw people, and to demand an end to 40 years of environmental damage and underdevelopment in the region.
There were many issues at stake: resource control, social and economic development, militarization of the region and environmental destruction such as oil spills and gas flares. Gas flaring has been continuous for 40 years and is the process used in the Niger Delta to separate petroleum from the by product, natural gas. The process wastes a potentially useful product as well as fills the atmosphere with carbon monoxide, smoke and soot. Gas flaring takes place in the middle of farmland and villages and burns 24 hours a day every day. Some of the flares are on the ground in pits, spewing out huge flames and soot and leaving the ground unusable for farming for years to come. People literally live in fire and oil.
What follows is an outline of a series of military attacks which provide an historical context and understanding to the present day militancy in Ijawland which has also contributed to the violence against women. In some instances whole villages have been abandoned by women due to fear of militants and gangs.
On the 1st of January 1999 the Nigerian Military Government declared war on the Ijaw people. Following the Yenagoa massacre, the army invaded Kaiama on the 2nd January. On the 4th January, soldiers using Chevron helicopters and sea trucks invaded Ikiyan and Opia towns. Other towns, Odi, Sabama, Patani, Aven, Bomadi were all occupied by military. The mayhem continued unabated throughout January and February. These communities were ransacked and looted, men and young boys were murdered, tortured and beaten. Women were molested, harassed, beaten and raped. Many people were still missing almost 18 months later. The Nigerian army and Mobile Police engaged themselves in a blood bath which left over 200 dead and thousands wounded. Once control of the area had been established by the military they settled down to occupy Ijawland and continue up to the present time to terrorise communities of mostly women, children and the elderly.
In Kaiama and across the region, many women and girls were raped and forced into prostitution by the Nigerian army. They also suffered bereavement and were further impoverished through the death or disappearance of family members.
“I stay in my house at that time, soldiers were everywhere. Three of them came to my house and broke the door down. They take my son and I have not seen him since that day. I have no money as my son used to look after me. Before I used to farm but I no fit farm now, I am weak. I no feel to do anything I just wait make I die, I no fit eat, every day I worry what will happen now.”
” My husband dey [was in] Yenagoa with his wife. When he hear what happen in Kaiama he come see for himself. Since that day when the soldier came and take him I have not seen him. I stay in Yenagoa but they I hear say they kill people and start to worry for my husband. Sometime those who have wounds they bring them to Yenagoa but I check and did not see my husband. After I come hear that they kill my husband at the Motor park. (the Chief was one of many townsmen that were taken to a nearby army camp and tortured after which he was murdered).
Helen, Widow – On the day the soldiers came I ran with my 3 children to the bush. At that time I was pregnant. My husband lock the house then follow me run. I think that he is at my back but I am hearing gun shot. After I come and see my husband is shot by the soldier when he is running. They steal all my property and break everything. Now I have no money, I can only collect firewood to sell and some small farming. Some time the church help me. Now my heart is cut.”
” At that time when the soldiers came I was at home with my husband. The soldiers came and arrested my husband and took him to the motor park. When there he was beaten and tortured with the others. His face was cut, nose broken, lips swollen and wounded everywhere. He had be cut on his head with an axe. When they took my husband I ran with my children to Opukoma (nearby village) to my father’s house until after 2 days I came back to Kaiama. At that time there was no one in the town, no medicines. After my husband went to Yenagoa but by that time it was too late for him to recover. My husband died three months ago from the wounds he received”
Odi Town Massacre.
In the early hours of the morning of the 20th November, 1999, 27 trucks carrying over 2000 soldiers plus 4 armored personnel carriers mounted with machine guns drove into Odi Town in Bayelsa State. Between 2pm that afternoon and 6pm the following day, the town was bombarded with artillery fire. By the end of the two days, practically every building in the town was flattened, set on fire and/or looted. In all 2,483 persons – mainly women, children and the elderly were massacred in 24 hours. Thousands more fled in canoes or on foot to the creeks and forests where they hid, some up to a week with no food or shelter.
The order to invade and destroy Odi town was given by the then head of state, President Olusegun Obasanjo. The reason given for the attack at the time was that two weeks before, 9 policemen had been kidnapped and killed in the town by a criminal gang.
Odi was not the only town in the Niger Delta where people were massacred and property destroyed during the Obasanjo years. Kaiama just a few miles from Odi was attacked January and later Oleh Town, in Delta State and Erema in Rivers State were also invaded to name a few. There was also the multiple rapes that took place in Choba, Rivers state where Nigerian army soldiers were photographed raping women. No one has ever been held accountable for these crimes against women and other civilians.
Odi Town November 1999
“My 15 year old son is missing. I came back and couldn’t see him. I could not see my son even his corpse I cannot see him even till now – 15 yrs – we were all in this house but when we heard the gun shots everyone take on his heels. My son ran to a different direction to myself and others. I ran to the bush, there was no food to eat there was nothing. I stayed in the bush for 12 days as the hunger was so much we started plucking leaves to chew and water to drink – my husband ran on his own too. We were scattered. When the soldiers left I came back and I saw my husband. He is looking for our son but we cannot see him.”
” You know you could not stand on the ground, the ground was shaking even the houses were shaking as if they want to fall down. So I started running down with that fear – I heard the army shooting, even the ground was shaking from the noise of the guns, the houses too. I had no canoe. Everything was burnt – books, my properties, my things for teacher’s college, NCE and University of Port Harcourt certificates, everything.”
“Other people ran into the bush. Those who could not get boats ran into the nearby bushes, they were all here most of them were just right inside. You know that time was a flood period and water everywhere, the whole of the bush was covered with water and some of them were standing on top of trees, hanging like that for days.”
Displaced women from Gbaramatu – May 2009
On May 14, 2009 at about noon, the people of Gbaramatu Kingdom, Delta State, were in a festive mood. There had been an influx of guests into the community from far and near. They all came to witness the presentation of the Staff of Office to the Pere of Gbaramatu Kingdom, His Royal Majesty Ogie III. The palace, located in Oporoza district, was filled with well- wishers as the day also marked the King’s one year anniversary. Suddenly, three low flying helicopters were seen approaching the Kindgom. The people initially thought they were planes flying in dignitaries to the ceremony or they were simply part of the festivities. They were wrong. Dead wrong!
“ Most“Most of the students like me who tried to escape during the deadly incident are dead. Some in the streets, forests …they were killed by the bombs. I lost my mother and six of my brothers in the incidence. Two of my three sisters are still trapped in the forest. The place is too dangerous for them to come out now. They can’t cross with boat and they can’t risk swimming. The JTF people have blockedhave blocked the waterways. One of my sisters has been missing.
Nobody seems to know her whereaboutwhereabouts. The military people were using their helicopter chopper to destroy everything we have ever had. I saw war with my naked eyes. I saw my mum’s dead body. I saw my brothers lying helpless on the ground (here she started sobbing). Everyone was running without direction. It is a bitter experience.
They are wicked people. They are heartless. I don’t have any family member as militants. We used to survive with fishing. It was through fishing business that my mum pays our school fees. Why will the FG send military men to kill us, to destroy our community? We don’t have anywhere else to go now. No home, no place to go. My OND certificate, my only hope for a better tomorrow has been destroyed”. Miss Peres Popo, 21, ,21 from, from Okporoza .
“I was sleeping but suddenly I woke up due to the endless sound of gunshot. It was after twelve in the afternoon. I was confused. When I peeped through my window, I saw people running and screaming. It was a hot afternoon. I slept with only my pants on. I had to run without even knowing that I was naked I was not conscious of my nakedness. It was when I managed to find my way to Warri town that I was able to clothe myself with the help of a relative. I am afraid I have still not seen my younger sister. Her name is Mary. We started running together from the house but at a point Ipoint I was ahead of her. After some time, I didn’t notice her again. I pray she is alive. She is my only sister.
– Mrs. Vero Idolo ,27, mother of two.
“They bombed everywhere and everything. They don’t have feelings at all. I was lucky to have my children and husband alive. My neighbour lost his pregnant wife in the incidence. She was my friend too.” – Evelyn Emmanuel.
“We were warming up for the king’s party. All of a sudden we started seeing helicopters roving in the air. The next thing something was dropping from it and it was landing as fire and exploding and burning and killing. I was scared stiff . I have never seen this kind of thing in my life.
The attack on Gbaramatu created a huge humanitarian crisis to the region with an estimated 20, 000 persons believed to be trapped in the forests and swamps. Those who managed to reach the main town of Warri were eventually given shelter in a disused clinic. Most of the displaced have now returned to their villages.